Thursday, May 31, 2018

Kali age –How it would be –A sage replied 5000 years back.

Kali age –How  it would be –A sage replied 5000 years back.

Summarised  by

(After   almost  the entire Bhagawatham is  narrated by sage Sukha  , King Parikshith    asks him , about Kali age  .In the chapter 2 of  the 12th dasakam of Bhagawatham , the reply of the sage   is there in great detail . I  came to know of it by reading the posting of my friend  Sri Vasu Iyengar  .I have not translated it , but I have made a summary of what   the sage   told him.I am sure   many of you would feel this is written by   a news analyser  of a modern news channel .No it was written 5000   years back,. Please see a video   which summarises  it further )

1.Dharma, purity, forgiveness,
Compassion , life  span ,
Strength  of body and mind,
And memory   would decline in Kali age.

2.Wealth  alone would  be the criteria,
For judging   a  person’s   greatness  ,
And  it would  determine  whether ,
All   his actions   are right or wrong.

3.Sexual attraction   would   be  the only,
Criteria in choice of matrimonial partner,
Trickery   would be the  only  business  method,
And sacred thread  would be  the only sign of a Brahmin

4.A brahmachari  , Grahastha  or Sanyasi,
Would be recognised only by their external marks,
Getting justice would depend on one’s  ability ,
To   gratify the  person who dispenses justice ,
And  capacity  to  talk  would be  the only  sign of scholarship

5,Poor person would  be considered as  not pious,
A good person  would be always a hypocrite
Mutual consent for sex would determine marriage,
Presence of a toilet  would indicate , whether a  person is clean

6.Any    distant   pond or river  would only be sacred,
Any temple    that is  huge would   only be great
Exhibiting   bare body   would always make any one pretty,
Only pursuit of human beings  would be to fill their belly,
Courage to talk any non sense  would make any one  an orator.

7.A person would be considered efficient, if he supports his family,
All  devotional     acts   would be carried out only to get fame,
The world would be   filled with wicked  people  ,
And the strongest    of them all   would become the   ruler.

8.People  would   be oppressed by   famines, floods, and taxation,.
Excessive cold, warmth, speed of wind  and torrential rains  would always be there,
Human beings would not get food    to eat   and people to marry,
And    untimely death  will occur  to young people

9.Varnasrama Dharma  which divides labour would be discontinued,
All  human beings would not attain proper growth and be stunted,
Religion would be replaced by lies and rulers by thieves,
And there would be whose  profession is to steal  and kill.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Universal Hindu Prayer to God Taught by Maha Periyava

Universal  Hindu  Prayer  to God Taught by Maha Periyava

Summarised  in English

(The tamil write up  given by Sri Ganapathi   is given below the english text)
Ra.Ganapathi  was a great devotee  of Maha Periyava and he wanted to learn a Manthra   which is a universal prayer to God friom  Maha Periyava 37 years back, When he   was standing in a queue   An iyengar lady   was standing before him   and she told Maha Perriyava , “Yesterday  in dream , you came and taught me a manthra . But when I woke up  I was not able to recollect it, Please teach it to me  .I will take bath   , wear  Madi cloth and come.”Maha Periyava   told her  Loudly “there  is  no need for you to take bath and come. I will teach it to you now itself and loudly he taught her “Am Bhagawa(अम़ भगवः)” , “Am Bhagawa(अम़ भगवः), “Am Bhagawa (अम़ भगवः) ”. “ He told her  that this very holy manthra can be chanted by any one and at any time three times  ., as it is a universal Manthra   addressed  to god.” Sri Ganapathi says that  Maha Periyava   has never at any time   taught a manthra loudly   and openly  like   that to any body. He also told them that though  Bhagawa is a  masculine word  , it can be used for female Gods   also That great writer has  taught this  great prayer chant to every one after 36 years .Large number of people have benefitted by chanting it.
    Bhagawa(male  aswell as female)    is the vedic name for  “God head” and Am  means “towards him”  “To serve him”
காஞ்சி மகா பெரியவரின் குரலை பதிவு செய்து "தெய்வத்தின் குரல்' என்ற தலைப்பில் கட்டுரைகளாக எழுதி இதுவரை ஏழு பாகமாக வெளியிட்டுள்ளவர்.
தெய்வத்தின் குரல் தவிர, காமகோடி, ராமகோடி, காமாஷி, கடாஷி, ஸ்ரீ சாரதாதேவி வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு, அறிவுக்கனலே, அரும்புனலே, ராமகிருஷ்ணர், சுவாமி விவேகானந்தர் வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு ஆகிய நூல்களை எழுதி வெளியிட்டவர்
ஆன்மிகம் தொடர்பான புத்தகங்கள் மட்டுமே எழுதியவர். ஆன்மிக எழுத்தின் மீது கொண்ட தாகம் காரணமாக திருமணம் செய்து கொள்ளாமலே வாழ்ந்தவர். கடந்த வாரம் மகாசிவராத்திரியன்று உட்கார்ந்து சிவநாமம் சொல்லிக் கொண்டிருக்கும்போதே உயிர் பிரிந்தது.
அவரது எழுத்து என்பது உணர்வு பூர்வமானது, தான் அனுபவித்த சந்தோஷம் வாசகர்களுக்கும் கிடைக்கவேண்டும் என்ற தாகத்தை கொண்ட எழுத்தாகும். சான்றுக்காக அவர் எழுதிய ஒரு கட்டுரை ஒன்று இங்கே இடம் பெறுகிறது. காஞ்சி பெரியவர் அருளிய மகா மந்திரம் தொடர்பான இந்த கட்டுரை மூலம் ரா.கணபதிக்கு எழுத்தால் இங்கே ஒரு அஞ்சலி செலுத்தப்படுகிறது.
ஒன்றேயான கடவுளின் பல வடிவங்களான பல தேவதைகளுக்குத்தான் மூல மந்திரங்கள் உள்ளனவே தவிர, மூலமான ஒரே கடவுளுக்கென அந்த மந்திரமும் இல்லாதிருப்பது ஏன் என்பதே கேள்வி.
ப்ரணவம் எனும் "ஓம்' மூலக்கடவுளுக்கே உரித்தான மந்திரந்தான். ஆயினும் வேறு பல மகான்களின் கருத்துக்கு மாறாக, சாஸ்திரக் கருத்தையே மட்டுமே ப்ரணவ ஜபம் செய்யலாம்; ஏனையோர் முதலில் "ஓம்' என்று கூறி அதோடு குறிப்பிட்டதொரு தேவதைக்கான மந்திரத்தைச் சொல்லலாமே தவிர, தனியாக ப்ரணவ ஜபம் செய்யலாகாது என்று கூறி வந்துள்ளனர்.
ப்ரணவம் எனும் ஓம்காரம் நமக்குள் தன்னியல்பாகவே இதயத்தை ஒட்டிய அநாஹத கரத்திலிருந்து எழும் ஒலி; எனவே சிலருக்குத் தன்னியல்பாகவே "ஓம்' என்பது ஒலிக்கும். அவர்கள் மட்டுமே துறவியாய் இல்லாவிடினும் ப்ரணவ ஜபம் செய்யலாம் என்பது ஸ்ரீ பெரியவாளின் கருத்து.
இவ்விஷயமாக ஸ்ரீ பெரியவாளையே கேட்டுத் தெளிவு பெறவேண்டும் என்ற எண்ணத்துடன் முப்பத்தேழு ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு, அப்பொழுது அவர்கள் முகாமிட்டிருந்த தேனம்பாக்கத்துக்குச் சென்றேன்.
முகாமில் இருந்த கிணற்றின் ஒரு புறத்தில் இருந்த குடிலை ஒட்டிய பகுதியிலிருந்து ஸ்ரீபெரியவாள் தரிசனம் தருவார்கள்; கிணற்றின் மறுபுறத்திலிருந்து மக்கள் தரிசனம் பெறுவார்கள்.
அன்றும் அப்படியே நடந்தது. நாங்கள் 40-50 பேர் இருந்தோம். வழக்கம் போல் அதில் பல்வேறு வயதினரும், பல்வேறு சமூகத்தினரும் இருந்தோம். ஓரிரு வெளிநாட்டவரும் இருந்தனர்.
தரிசனத்தின்போது ஓர் மாது, நேற்றிரவு சொப்பனத்தில் வந்து ஒரு மந்திரம் உபதேசித்தீர்கள்; ஆனால் என் துரதிர்ஷ்டம். இன்று காலை அந்த மந்திரம் மறந்து போய்விட்டது! பெரியவாள் அவசியம் அந்த மந்திரத்தை மறுபடி உபதேசிக்க வேணும். எப்பொழுது மடியாக வந்து அந்தரங்கமாக உபதேசம் பெறலாம்?'' என மிகவும் ஆதுரத்துடன் வினவினார்.
அப்பொழுது சாஸ்திரக் காவலரான ஸ்ரீ பெரியவாளா பேசுகிறார் என்று பேராச்சர்யம் அடையுமாறு அவர்கள் கூறிய மறுமொழி: மடியும் வேண்டாம்; அந்தரங்கமும் வேண்டாம்; பகிரங்கமாக எல்லோருக்குமாக (அம்மந்திரத்தை) சொல்கிறேன்.'' இப்படிச் சொல்லி கணீரென்ற தெய்வத்தின் குரலில், அம் பகவ'': அம் பகவ'': அம் பகவ'': என மும்முறை உபதேசித்தார்கள்.
இப்படியும் மந்திரமூர்த்தியே ஆகிய ஸ்ரீமஹாபெரியவாளிடமிருந்து கேளாமலே உபதேசமா என்ற பேருவகையுடன் அங்கு கூடியிருந்த எல்லோரும் "அம் பகவ': மந்திரோபதேசம் பெற்றோம்.
ஆச்சர்ய உணர்வைத் தொடரும் விதத்தில் அவர்கள் "இதை ஜபிக்க எந்த நியமமும் (விதிமுறையும்) இல்லை. எவரும், எந்த நேரமும் ஜபிக்கலாம்' என்றும் கூறினார்கள்.
ஆகக்கூடி எந்த மந்திர சாஸ்திர நூலிலும் காணப்படாத "அம் பகவ': என்ற மகா மந்திரம் ஸ்ரீ பெரியவாளின் வாய்மொழியில் நமக்கெல்லாம் ஓர் அமுதச்சுனையாகக் கிடைத்துவிட்டது!
"பகவ': என்பதற்கு "பகவானே!' என்று பொருள். "அம்' என்பது ஒரு மங்கல அக்ஷரம்.
நெடுங்காலமாக எனக்குள் இருந்த கேள்விக்கான பதிலும் கிடைத்துவிட்டது! அனைத்து தெய்வங்களுமான மூலக் கடவுளுக்குரிய மந்திரம் "அம் பகவ!' எந்த தெய்வத்தை இஷ்டமூர்த்தியாகக் கொண்டவரும் இம் மந்திரத்தை அம்மூர்த்திக்குரியதாகக் கருதி ஜபிக்கலாம் என்றும், "பகவ;' என்பது ஆண்பாலில் இருந்தாலும் பெண் தெய்வங்களை ஸ்மரித்தும் இதனை ஜபிக்கலாம் என்று பெரியவரிடமிருந்து விளக்கம் பெற்றோம்.
ஸ்ரீபெரியவாள் தமது நீண்ட நெடிய நூறாண்டு வாழ்வில் அன்று ஒரே ஒருநாள்தான் இப்படியொரு மந்திரத்தை அதுவும் பகிரங்கமாக மொழிந்திருக்கிறார்கள் என்பது இன்னொரு பேராச்சர்யம்!
எல்லோருக்குமான இத் தங்கப் புதையலை 36 ஆண்டுகள் நான் எனக்குள் மட்டுமே வைத்திருக்கிறேன்! சென்ற ஆண்டிலிருந்துதான் எனக்குத் தெரிந்த மற்ற பலருக்கும் இதனைக் கூறி வருகிறேன். அவர்களில் ஸ்ரீ மகா பெரியவர்களையே இஷ்டதேவதையாகக் கொண்ட சிலர் இம்மந்திர ஜபத்தால் தங்களுக்கு விசேஷமான பலன் கிடைப்பதாக உவகையுடன் கூறுகிறார்கள்.

Vali the great monkey of Ramayana with a rainbow personality

Vali  the great monkey  of Ramayana  with a rainbow  personality


(I read  in a face book post of my friend Sri Vasu Iyengar  , about   how Vali was considered   as having  human, monkey as well   as divine personalities, as was pointed  out by  a great Scholar of Epics, Sri Keeran..I just stretched   that idea a bit and saw more aspects of personality in the great monkey.)  

Vali, the son of Indra was a social worker,
Who was extremely strong and helped   the devas ,
In churning   the ocean of milk , to take  out nectar,
And he was  presented  the Gem like Tara  , born from ocean

Vali  was   well known   as an extremely  religious  being,
Who used to  do Sandhya Vandhana   daily  in different oceans,
In the east  , south   as well   as  west  of his country ,
By   jumping   to the  banks  of ocean  , extremely   easily

Vali   was well known   as  a great   father  who loved  his son,
Who  caught hold   of the   ten headed   Ravana   from the sea shore ,
And tied  him to the  strings   of the   royal   cradle  in his home  ,
So that  his baby Angadha enjoyed   his  lying down in a cradle

Vali  was also  a great  brother  to his   brother  Sugreeva ,
Whom he did not   allow    to fight   with Asura   called  Dundhubhi,
And himself   entered   the cave   to fight   with that  great Asura ,
Instructing  him to wait for him and go back  as king  if he dies.

Vali   was   an extremely  short    tempered   human monkey  ,
Who could not tolerate   his younger   brother  becoming ,
A king of monkeys instead of him   and drove  him away  ,
And even took   the pretty wife of his brother  as his own.

Vali   is a wise  monkey  who could  think like  human beings,
When his  wife Tara told him not to go to fight  with Sugreeva,
Because , he was   coming   to fight   with him  only  because ,
He was supporyed by Rama,feeling  that The great  Rama was God.

Vali   is   a real capricious   monkey  who could  not understand ,
Why Sugreeva   was  coming  garlanded to fight   again and told his wife,
That  he would   tear  his younger   brother   in to small pieces,
For his    foolish act  and went   needlessly to fight   with him.

Vali  is   a real lawyer  monkey who tears  in to pieces  ,
The   arguments  put   up by  Lord    Rama , for killing him,
Hiding   in side a  bush  and   gets recognition  of the world,
For being   wronged   by  Rama , the otherwise Maryada Purushothama

Vali  is a God like  monkey, who when he   understands  ,
That  death is nearing him, requests Lord Rama  to make him a king,
For  in spite  of his silly  behaviour  was   essentially good,
And also entrusts   his  son Angadha  for  protection with God  Rama

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Introduction to Upanishads

Introduction to Upanishads 

General Introduction 

"Upanishad means the inner or mystic 
teaching. The term Upanishad is derived from upa (near), ni (down) 
and s(h)ad (to sit), i.e., sitting down near. Groups of pupils sit 
near the teacher to learn from him the secret doctrine. In the 
quietude of the forest hermitages the Upanishad thinkers pondered on 
the problems of deepest concerns and communicated their knowledge to 
fit pupils near them. Samkara derives the word Upanishad as a 
substitute from the root sad, 'to loosen.,' 'to reach' or 'to 
destroy' with Upa and ni as prefixes and kvip as termination. If 
this determination is accepted, upanishad means brahma-knowledge by 
which ignorance is loosened or destroyed." Upanishads are found in 
the concluding sections of Vedas and are classified as Vedanta or 
the end of the Vedas. There are five Vedas with Yajur Veda having 
two versions. Each of these five books has several Saaakas 
(Branches). Each Saaka has a Karma Khanda dealing with the actions 
to be performed and is made up of Mantras and Brahmanaas. The latter 
deals with Upasana or meditation and has Aranyakas inside them for 
the benefit of those who have resorted to the quiet habitat of the 
forest to pursue their spiritual Quest. 

The Upanishads are found mostly in the Aranyaka section of the 
Vedas. The five Vedas have 1180 Saaakas and thus there should be 
1180 Upanishads. But what we have now with us is a collection of 108 
Upanishads. The list of these 108 Upanishads is given in the 

Out of the 108 Upanishads only 10 have been commented upon by 
several Acharyas like Adhi Sankara. These are Ishavasya, Kena, 
Katha, Aithreya, Brihadaranyaka, Prashna, Mandukya, Taittireeya, 
Chandogya and Mundaka. These have also been popularized by many 
savants like Swami Vivekananda, Swami Chinmayananda etc. They all 
deal with highest category of philosophy and metaphysics. So there 
is a general impression that all Upanishads are texts of Hindu 
Philosophy. This is not true. There are Upanishads which even tell 
you how to wear the sacred ash, how to worship a particular God and 
so on. But majority of them deal with methods of Yoga and 
Renunciation (Sanyasa). 

The Vedas and Upanishads 

"The breakdown among the 108 Upanishads according to the 5 Vedas are 
as follows: 

l.Rig Veda : 10 
2.Sama Veda :16 

3. Atharva Veda: 31 

4. Krishna Yajur Veda: 32 
5.Sukla Yajur Veda: 19 

The 10 Upanishads belonging to the Rig Veda are the following: 

1. Aitareya 2.Kaushitaki 3.Nadabindu 4.Atmabodha 5. Nirvana 
6.Mudgala 7.Akshamala 8.Tripura 9.Saubhagyalakshmi and 

10. Bah vracha. 

The 16 associated with the Sama Veda are: 

l.Kena 2.Chhandogya 3.Arunika 4. Maitrayani 5.Maitreyi 

6. Vajrasuchi 7.Yogachudamani 8.Vasudeva 9.Mahat 

10.Sanyasa ll.Avyakta 12. Kundika 13.Savitri 14.Rudrakshajabala 

15. Jabaladarsana and 16.Jabali 

The 19 Upanishads belonging to Sukla Yajur Veda are: 

l.Isavasya 2.Brahadaranyaka 3.Jabala 4. Hamsa 5.ParamaHamsa 

6.Subala 7.Mantrika 8.Niralamba 9.Trisikhibrahmana 10.Mandalabrahmana 

11. Advayataraka 12.Paingala 13.Bhikshuka 14. Turiyatita 15.Adhyatma 

16. Yajnavalkya 17.Satyayani 18.Tarasara and 19.Muktika . 

The 32 Upanishads belonging to the Krishna Yajur Veda are: 

l.Katha 2.Taittiriya 3.Brahma 4.Kaivalya 5.Svetasvatara 6.Garbha 

7. Narayana 8.Amritabindhu 9.Amritanada 10.Kalagnirudra ll.Kshurika 

12. Sarvasara 13.Sukharahasya 14. Tejobindhu 15. Dhyanabindhu 
16.Brahmavidya 17.Yogatattva 18.Dakshinamurti 19.Skanda 
20.Sariraka 21.Yogasikha 22. Ekakshara 23. Akshi 24. Avadhuta 

25. Katharudra 26.Rudrahrudhaya 27.Yogakundalini 28. Panchabrahma 
29.Pranaagnihotra 30.Varaha 31. Kalisantaranaand 
32.Sarasvatirahasya . 

The 31 Upanishads belonging to the Atharva Veda are : 

1. Prasna 2.Mundaka 3.Maandukya 4.Atharvasira 5.Atharvasikha 
6. Brahajjabala 7. Nrsimhatapini 8. Narada Parivrajaka 9.Sita 
lO.Sarabha 11.Tribadvibhutimahanarayana 12.Ramarahasya 

13. Ramatapini 14.Sandilya 15.Paramahamsaparivrajaka 
16. Annapurna 17.Surya 18.Atma 19. Pasupatabrahma 

20.Parabrahma 21. Tripuratapini 22. Devi 23. Bhavana 
24. Bhasmajabala 25. Ganapati 26.Mahavakhya 
27. Gopalatapini 28.Krishna 29. Hayagriva 30.Dattatreya 
and 31. Garuda ." 

Major Upanishads 

The ten major Upanishads which contain great philosophical 
discussions and knowledge are 
l.Ishavasya Upanishad. 

It is one of the great but brief Upanishad. It gives the 

summary of Indian philosophy very succinctly. It reviews the whole 
life and comes out with explanations. 

2. Kena Upanishad 

Kenopanishad derives its name from the first word Kena , 
meaning 'by whom 1 . It belongs to the Talavakara Bahmana of Sama 
Veda and is therefore also referred to as Talavakara Upanishad. In 
short it says that "The One Power that illumines everything and 
every one is indivisible. It is the Ear behind the ears, Mind behind 
the mind, Speech behind speech, Vital Life behind life. The ears 
cannot hear it; it is what makes the ears hear. The eyes cannot see 
it; it is what makes the eyes see. You cannot speak about it; it is 
what makes you speak. The mind cannot imagine it; it is what makes 
the mind think. It is different from what all we know; yet it is not 
known either. Those who feel they know Him, know Him not. Those who 
know that anything amenable to the senses is not Brahman, they know 
it best. When it is known as the innermost witness of all 
cognitions, whether sensation, perception or thought, then it is 
known. One who knows thus reaches immortality" 

3. Kathopanishad 

"The Kathopanishad is divided into six Vallis. Valli literally means 
a creeper. A Valli, like a creeper, is attached to the Sakhas or 
Branches of the Veda. This Upanishad is also divided into two 
Adhyayas (chapters) of three Vallis each. "This is one of the most 
beautiful Upanishads in which the eternal truths are given in the 
form of a narrative. The narrative is taken from Taittiriya Brahmana 
(3-11-8) with some variation. The same story is told in the 
Taittiriya Brahmana, only with this difference that in the Brahmana 
freedom from death and birth is obtained by a peculiar performance 
of a sacrifice, while in the Upanishad it is obtained by knowledge 

4. Aithreya Upanishad 

The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the oldest of the Upanishads. It 
belongs to the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rig-Veda. It is divided into 
three chapters and contains 33 verses. The Upanishad deals with the 
process of creation. 

5. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 

"Brhadaranyaka Upanishad means the "great forest-book". This 
Upanishad is one of the oldest of all the Upanishads. It consists of 
three sections or kandas: the Madhu kanda, the Yajnavalkya or the 
Muni kanda and the Khila kanda. Here the Brahman is portrayed as 
universal and undifferentiated consciousness. The doctrine of the 
indescribability of the absolute and the doctrine of 'Neti, Neti' 
are explained. This Upanishad concludes by stating the three virtues 
that one should practice i.e. self-restraint, giving, and 

6. Prashna Upanishad 

"In Sanskrit , Prashna mean question. This book consists of six 
questions and their answers, hence the name. It is in the form of 
question-answers. Except first and last questions, all other 
questions are actually a group of smaller sub-questions. As narrated 
in the beginning of this Upanishad., Six pupils interested in 
knowing divinity or Brahman come to sage Pippalada and ask questions 
of great spiritual importance. Pippalada asks them to take up 

penance of one year. Upon completion of penance, they again come to 
sage and ask questions, then the sage answers their questions." 

7. Mandukya Upanishad 

"For the very reason that it explains the esoteric meaning of the 
fundamental syllable Aum of Hindu spiritual tradition, the Upanishad 
has been extolled greatly. The Muktikopanishad which talks about all 
other Upanishads, says that if a person cannot afford to study all 
the hundred and more Upanishads, it will be enough to read just the 
M^nd^kya Upanishad. According to Dr.S. Radhakrishnan in this 
Upanishad we find the fundamental approach to the attainment of 
reality by the road of introversion and ascent from the sensible and 
changing, through the mind which dreams, through the soul which 
thinks, to the divine within but above the soul." 

8. Taittireeya Upanishad 

"The Taittiriya Upanishad belongs to the Taittiriya school of the 
Yajur Veda. It is divided into three sections called Vallis. T he 
first is the Siksa Valli. Siksa is the first of the six Vedangas 
(limbs or auxiliaries of the Veda); it is the science of phonetics 
and pronunciation. The second is the Brahmananda Valli and the third 
is the Bhrugu Valli. These two deal with the knowledge of the 
Supreme Self, paramatma-jnana." 

9. Chandogya Upanishad 

"Along with Brhadaranyaka Upanishad the Chandogyopanishad is an 
ancient source of principal fundamentals for Vedanta philosophy. 
Considering number of references made to this Upanishad in Brahma 
sutras, it indicates special importance of this Upanishad in Vedanta 
philosophy. Important spiritual practices like Dahara vidya, 
Shandilya vidya, etc. are its speciality." 

10. Mundakopanishad 

"This Upanishad begins with an Invocation, praying that eye may see 
auspicious things, the ear may hear auspicious sounds, and that life 
may be spent in the contemplation of the Lord. The teaching of this 
Upanishad is referred to as Brahmavidya, either because it describes 
first the message of Hiranyagarbha, the casual Brahma, or because 
the message relates the glory of Brahmam. This Upanishad speaks of 
Brahmavidya as the mystery which only those with shaven heads and 
those who go through a rite of having Fire on the shaven head can 
understand. So, it is called Mundaka, or shaven Head. Apart from 
this, this Upanishad is honoured as the crest of all, since it 
expounds the very essence of Brahma Jnana. It is assigned to the 
Fourth Veda, the Atharvana." 

(The write up about the ten major Upanishads has been taken from 
various web sites. My indebtedness to those great souls is 

The other 98 Upanishads are again classified according to their 
content as follows. 

They are General, (Of common interest), Saiva(Dealing with Lord 
Shiva) , Saktha (dealing with the divine mother Shakthi), Vaishnava 
(dealing with Lord Vishnu), Sanyasa (Dealing with renunciation) and 
Yoga(dealing with Yogic practices) Upanishads. Thouigh 
classification is made, still there is some overlapping in the 

subjects dealt with. Short notes on each of these Upanishads 
category wise are given below:- 

General Upanishads(27 ) 

Svetasvatara Upanishad 

This Upanishad is taught by a sage called Svetasvatara. More 
emphasis is given in teaching of Sankhya yoga and the philosophy of 

Garbho Upanishad 

This Upanishad is by sage Pippalada and deals with the 
growth of foetus in the womb .It also gives the number of different 
parts of the body like bones, nerves , flesh etc. 

Maitrayani Upanishad 

This Upanishad tells us about the penance of a king called 
Brahadratha. The king asks the sage Sakanya about the feeling of 
desire in this meaningless world. Sage Sakanya relates him, what has 
been told to him by sage Maithreya. He teaches him the great science 
of Brahma Vidya. And tells him finally that mind and illusion are 
responsible for this contradiction. 

Kaushitaki Upanishad 

This Upanishad is taught by sage Chithra to sage Udhalaka and his 
son Shwethakethu. It deals about the science of soul. The temporary 
nature of rituals and good deeds and permanent nature of doing 
everything without desire is emphasized. It also tells the need for 
a father to give up all his personality and knowledge to his son and 
enter Sanyasa. 

Subala Upanishad 

This is the teaching of Sage Angiras to sage Raikwa. It 
tries to answer the question of the time and method of creation of 
the world. It also tries to find out the properties of the soul of 
beings. And has several aspects of philosophy. 

Mantrika Upanishad 

Deals about the properties of Brahmam. Tells that 
whatever is produced vanishes and then is reproduced. Concludes that 
the one who knows it well is the Brahman 

Sarvasara Upanishad 

Defines and explains several words like Katha, 

Bandha, Annamaya etc which occur constantly in Upanishadic 

Niralamba Upanishad 

It is an independent text of Hindu philosophy. It tries to 
investigate what is Brahmam and concludes that the Sanyasi by 
following proper methods has a better chance of attaining salvation. 

Sukarahasya Upanishad 

This Upanishad is supposed to be taught to sage Suka 
so that he would understand the philosophy of salvation. The 
explanations of words and ideas are extensive. 

Vajrasuchika Upanishad 

This Upanishad investigates and tries to answer the 

question, "Who is a Brahmin? It says that caste does not come by 

Atmaprabodha Upanishad 

Tells us about meditation on Pranava and the great 
Vaishnava mantra"om narayanaya Nama." Defines and tells about the 
identities of an evolved soul. 

Skanda Upanishad 

Takes a conciliatory stand between Shaiva and 
Vaishnava. Tells that both are same. 

Mudgala Upanishad 

This Upanishad aims at explaining the mantras of the great 
Purusha Suktham. 

Paingala Upanishad 

This is taught by sage Yagnavalkya to sage Paingala. It 
gives an explanation of the term 'Kaivalya'. It also attempts to 
explain the Maha Vakyas of Vedas like 'Aham Brahmasmi 1 as well the 
duties of Jnanis. 

Mahat Upanishad 

Tells about the initial creation of the universe starting 
From Lord Narayana till Lord Brahma After this there is discussion 
between sage Suka and the king Janaka regarding the creation of the 
Samsara. This is followed by discussion of several aspects of 
philosophy between Sage Nidhaka and his Guru Sage Ripu .It tells 
that Sastras are burden for a Jnani, Jnana is a burden to those who 
are attached and so on. 

Sariraka Upanishad 

Tells us about the different aspects of the human body, 
including states of knowledge. 

Akshamalika Upanishad 

This Upanishad is taught by Guha to Lord Brahma, It tells us 
in detail about how to choose the mala (rosary) for use in 

Ekakshara Upanishad 

This is an Upanishad which deals with the letter' Om'. This is more 
of a prayer towards 'Om'. 

Surya Upanishad 

Tells us about Surya Angirasa mantra and Gayatri which is a 
prayer to the Sun. Tells also about the ashtakshara to worship Lord 

Akshi Upanishad 

Contains the prayer of sage Sankruthi to Lord Surya which 
contains the Chakshushmathi mantra. This is followed by teaching of 
Brahma Vidya by Surya. 

Adhyatma Upanishad 

This is initially taught by Sadashiva to sage 
Apantharathamas. Tells that There is nothing but Athma and the 

feeling of existence of others is only illusion. 

Savitri Upanishad 

Tells us who is Savithri and the difference between Savitha and 
Savithri Also gives the Savithri mantra. 

Atma Upanishad 

Deals with various aspects of Athma and how a Brahma 
Jnani does not see any other thing except Athma. 

Katarudra Upanishad. 

This is teaching of Brahma Vidya by Lord Brahma himself to the 
Devas. The treatment is philosophical. 

Panchabrahma Upanishad 

Details the five stages by which Para Brahmam was evolved 
Pranaagnihotra Upanishad 

This Upanishad deals with the sarrera Yagna or the 
sacrifice to the body. Tells what all mantras are to be chanted 
before taking food.. The usual mantras that a Brahmin chants while 
taking food are contained in this Upanishad. 

Muktika Upanishad 

This Upanishad is the Teaching of Lord 
Rama to Hanuman. It tells about Vedas, Vedangas and also Kaivalya 
and also summarizes the Hindu Vedanta. The list of 108 Upanishads is 
given in this Upanishad. 

Saiva Upanishads(13) 

Kaivalya Upanishad 

In this Brahma teaches the knowledge of Brahmam to sage 
Aswalayana. Though Adhi Sankara wrote commentaries only for ten 
Upanishads, he considered this also as an important Upanishad. It 
deals with he state where the person is himself. The path shown is 
through meditation and devotion. Keeping the person as the plank 
and considering OM as the stick which rotates on the plank and gives 
out the light of fire. 

Atharvasira Upanishad 

It emphasizes about the greatness of the holy 
letter "om" .It also tells that the form of lord Rudhra is the form 
of Pranava. 

Atharvasikha Upanishad 

This is taught by Sage Adharva to great sages like Pippaladha, 
Angiras and Sanathkumara. It emphasizes on the need and benefits on 
the meditation of the Pranava. 

Brahajjabala Upanishad 

This Upanishad is told by Kalagni Rudra to sage Busundi. It 
deals in detail about the method of preparation of holy ash 
(Vibhuthi) and method of wearing it. 

Kaalagnirudra Upanishad 

It tells in detail about the method of wearing holy ash 
(Vibhuthi) along with mantras for wearing the same. This is taught 

by Kalagni Rudra to the great sage Sanathkumara. 

Dakshinamurthi Upanishad 

Dakshinamurthy is the teacher form of Shiva. He 
teaches without talking. This Upanishad gives the Dakshinamurthi 
mantra and the method of practicing it 

Sarabha Upanishad 

Sarabha is the animal, man and bird form of 
Lord Shiva. It is believed that he took this form to control the 
anger of Vishnu when he took the form of Narasimha. This Upanishad 
tells about Lord Sarabha. 


Tells us lord Shiva's aspect of Pasupathi(the lord of all 
living things).Tells how that the entire universe is really one and 
there is no differentiation. 

Rudrahrudaya Upanishad 

Shuka asks his father which God exists in all devas 
and in which God all devas exist. The answer is this Upanishad. He 
tells that it is Rudra. 

Bhasmajabala Upanishad 

Tells about how Vibhuthi has to be prepared and 
also the daily duties of a Brahmana. This is the teaching Lord Shiva 
to Jabala Busunda. 

Rudrakshajabala Upanishad 

This is the teaching of Kalagni Rudra to sage Busunda. And 
deals exclusively about Rudraksha. 

Ganapati Upanishad 

Starts with a prayer to Lord Ganapathy and gives the 
Ganapathy mantra. Tells how worship of Ganapathy is to be done. 

Jabali Upanishad 

Sage Jabali tells sage Pippalada about lord Pasupathi. The 
need and method of wearing Vibhuti(Holy ash) is given in detail. 

Saktha Upanishads(9) 

Sita Upanishad 

Brahma tells the Devas about who is Sita. He tells 
them that she is the Adhara Shakthi (the basis which is the 
foundation) in the feminine form. Tells also about her different 

Tripuratapini Upanishad 

Tells about the Sathakshari mantra for meditating on 
Tripura, the Goddess Parvathy. Several great manthras like Gayatry, 
and Panchadasakshari are a part of this. Tells about Srividya 

,Annapurna Upanishad 

Sage Rupu tells sage Nidhaka about Devi Annapurna. He also 
teaches him the Annapurna mantra. This is followed by teaching of 
philosophical aspects like maya, Yoga and Mukthi. 

Devi Upanishad 

The Devi tells the devas who she is in this 
Upanishad. Tells about Panchadasakshari and Navakshari mantras to 
worship her. 

Tripura Upanishad 

Tells about Sri Chakra and the worship of the devi 
through the right and left methods. 

Bhavana Upanishad 

Tells one important aspect of Sri Vidya Upasana. 
Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad 

Bhagawan Narayana tells about the Shakthi from whom every God 
originated and teaches the devas, the worship of sowbhagya Lakshmi 

Sarasvatirahasya Upanishad 

This Upanishad is taught by Sage Asvalayana to other sages. 
He teaches them the ten Saraswathi mantras and methods of 
worshipping her 

Bahuvracha Upanishad 

Talks in detail about the existence of Shakthi from whom 
all gods and knowledge originated. Gives hints of worship of Sri 

Vaishnava Upanishads(14) 

Narayana Upanishad 

Describes the principle of Tripath Narayana . It also 
introduces the Narayana ashtakshara mantra and describes the 
benefits of chanting it 

Nrsimhatapini Upanishad 

It has two parts. In the poorva part, it 
tells in detail about the greatness of Lord Naraimha. It also has 
the great king of Mantras called Narasimha mantra and tells in 
detail how to meditate on it. In the Uthara part it tells also about 
the greatness of Pranava and the Narsimha Raja Mantra. It gives 
detailed method of meditating on Lord Narasimha. 

Tripadvibhutimahana rayana Upanishad 

Brahma did Thapas for 1000 years to know from Lord 
Vishnu about Brahmam. This is what Lord Vishnu told him. Also clears 
his doubts such as Brhamam having a form and not having a form etc . 
Also gives the shapes of several yantras. 

Ramarahasya Upanishad 

Tells that Lord Rama is Brahma Taraka and expounds various 
mantras for worshipping him. Also gives yantras for worshipping Lord 

Ramatapini Upanishad 

There are two parts , the poorva Thapini and the second 
Uthara Thapini. Tells about the greatness of the word "Rama". Tells 
about the Rama Yantra, which is similar to the Sri Chakra. Tells 

also the belief that 'Lord Shiva tells the Tharaka mantra in the 
ears of all people dying in Varanasi 1 and the method of worship of 

Vasudeva Upanishad 

Tells about what is UrdhwaPundra(the sign worn 
by Vaishnavites) and the rules for wearing it. 

Avyakta Upanishad 

Deals about the creation of clearly defined things from that 
unclear past. Tells how Parajapati came from Avayaktha and went on 
to create the world. Gives a mantra to worship Lord Vishnu. 

Tarasara Upanishad 

Tells about holiness of Kurukshethra, Tharaka mantra and 
pranava. Tells method of worship of Lord Narayana. 

Gopalatapini Upanishad 

Sages approach Lord Brahma to know the procedure to worship 
Krishna. What he tells them is contained in this Upanishad. The 
upasana mantra of Govinda is given. 

Krishna Upanishad 

The sages when they meet Rama wanted to embrace him. He 

made them to be born as Gopis and he took the avatara of Krishna, so 

that they can embrace him. This book tells as to who were born as 
what in Krishnavatara. 

Hayagreeva Upanishad 

Brahma tells Narada that whoever meditates and worships 

Lord Hayagreeva gets to know the Brahma vidya. The mantra for 

worship of Lord Hayagreeva is given. 

Dathathreya Upanishad 

Tells the method of meditation and worship of 
Dathathreya. The Dathathreya mantra is given. 

Garuda Upanishad 

The method of meditation and worship of Garuda , the 
vehicle of Lord Vishnu is given. 

Kali santarana Upanishad 

Tells about how the evils of kali age is to be 
crossed. The sixteen letter prayer on Rama would help one in doing 

Sanyasa Upanishads (16) 

Brahmo Upanishad 

Tells us about how the great sage of wisdom comes out of all 
mundane things and lives a life where there is no need for rituals 

and no differences exist. The mantra for changing Yagnopavita occurs 
in this Upanishad. 

Jabala Upanishad 

This is compiled by Sage Jabala. This gives more emphasis on 
mediation and the chanting of Rudra. The greatness of concentrating 
between the centres of eyes is stressed here. 

Arunya Upanishad 

This Upanishad deals about the teaching of Prajapathi to sage 
Aaruni. It gives in detail the rules of life to be followed by a 
Brahmachari and a Sanyasi. 

Paramahamsa Upanishad 

It deals about the discussion between Sage Narada and 
God on who is a paramahamsa (sanyasi at an advanced stage) and 
methods to identify him. 

Maitreyi Upanishad 

It is the teaching of Lord Parameshwara to sage 
Maithreya. To a large extent , what is given in Maithrayani 
Upanishad is repeated. In addition God tells to him in detail about 
his formless form. 

Nirvana Upanishad 

Details about the Sanyasa marga involving Nirvana 
(nudity). Tells about how the people follow it . 

Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad 

This is the teaching of Narada to the Souunaka Sages. It 
tells abut the methods to attain salvation, the rules to be followed 
by a Sanyasi, and the time when a person should enter Sanyasa. It 
also talks about Karma Sanyasa. 

Bhikshuka Upanishad 

It defines the different types of Sanyasi like Kuttesaka, 
Bahoodhaka, Hamsa and Parama Hamsa . 

Turiyatita Upanishad 

It is taught by Lord Narayana to Lord Brahma and tells us abut 
the rules of the life of an Avadhootha. 

Sanyasa Upanishad 

Tells who can take Sanyasa and what is the procedure. 

Paramahamsaparivrajaka Upanishad 

This is taught by Lord Narayana to Lord Brahma. It deals 
mainly about the procedure of taking sanyasa. 

Kundika Upanishad 

Tells what al things a Sanyasi should posses. And how he 
should behave 

Parabrahma Upanishad 

Tells what is Yagnopavitha as well as Shika, for the 
sanyasis as well as people of the world. Gives clearly the total 
length of the Upavitha. For the sanyasi it is the pranava which acts 
as Yagnopavitha and Shika. 

Avadhuta Upanishad 

Dathathreya teaches sage Sankrithi as to who is Avadhootha 
and how he should behave. 

Yajnavalkya Upanishad 

The Upanishad tells when to assume sanyasa and also the 
properties of a sanyasi. 

Saatyayani Upanishad 

Mind becomes the reason for attachment and salvation. Tells that a 
real Brahmin should search for Brahmam. Also tells that one taking 
sanyasa gives redemption for three generation of manes. 

Yoga Upanishads(19) 

Shwethaswadhara Upanishad 

This Upanishad is taught by a sage called Swethaswadhara. More 
emphasis is given in teaching Sankhya yoga and the philosophy of 


This talks about meditation on Hamsa mantra and is being 
taught by sage Gauthama to sage Sanathkumara. The method of 
meditating on the Hamsa mantra is fully described. 

Amrutha bindu Upanishad. 

It gives the knowledge of athma in the tasty form of 
nectar and gives it as briefly as a dot. It tells us about what is 
Brahmam and other concepts of hard core Hindu Philosophy. 

Amrutha nadopanishad. 

This describes the way and detailed method to chant 
the holy letter "OM', which is called here as the nectar like letter. 


Kshrika means knife. It is so called because it cuts 
ignorance using the knife of wisdom. This is a Upanishad which in 
detail tells about Yoga and its practice. 

Thejo Bindupanishad 

This Upanishad is the teaching of Lord Paramashiva 
to his son Subrahmanya .Talks in detail about Yogic practices, 
defines Chinmathra Swaroopa ,Athmanubhava , Jeevan Muktha etc 

Nada Bindu Upanishad 

Tells in detail about the meditation on Omkara (pranava) . 
The method of meditation and some problems which may occur are 
pointed out. 

Dhyana Bindu Upanishad. 

The meditation on Pranava and Ajabha Gayathri is dealt in 
detail along with the method involved. 

Brahma Vidhyoupanishad. 

Teaches methods of attaining Brahma through 
meditation .Emphasizes role of Guru. Tells that Sruthi is more 
important than pramana. 

Yoga Thathwopanishad 

This is the teaching of Lord Vishnu to Lord Brahma.. It 
details out the yogic practice. It also tells about the stages in 
yoga, defines them and tells how to recognize them. 

Trisiki Brahmanopanishad. 

This is the teaching of Lord Soorya to a Brahmin called 
Trishiki Brahmana. He clears his doubts about the definition of the 
body, soul , Karana and yogic practice. 

Yoga Choodamani Upanishad. 

Tells about Yogic practice involving Ajaba Gayatri. Tells 
about the seats of yoga , tells how to wake up the Kundalani and 
reach her up to Brahma Randra. 

Mandala Brahmanoupanishad. 

This is the teaching of Sun God to his disciple Yagna 
Valkya. This deals with the principle of the soul through yogic 
practice. Definitions of various terms used in Yoga is also given. 
Tells in detail about Yogic practice and tells us about what is 
Sambhavi Mudhra. 


This is taught by sage Atharvana to sage Sandilya.. It 
deals with Ashtangayoga and Brahma Vidhya. 


This is the teaching of Lord Maheswara to Lord Brahma. It 
deals with subjects like Mukthi, Shakthi, Nadha , Chaithanya and 

Yoga kudalinyupanishad. 

Tells about Kundalani and yogic practice. 

Sri Jabaladarsanopanishad. 

This is the teaching of Lord Dathathreya to his disciple sage 
Sankriti. And tells how the yoga should be done in detail. 


Confirms that the knowledge "That this Sun is Brahma" 
would be realized by chanting of Ajapa Gayathri. Tells what is the 
merger of mind with Brhama. 


Tells about the Brahma Vidya of the body of Varaha. Lord Vishnu 
as Varaha tells how he should be meditated upon and worshipped. Also 
deals in detail about the stages of yoga.